Barley (Lat. Hordeum) – genus of plants of Gramineae family, one of the most ancient cereals cultivated by human being. The cultivation of common barley (Hordeum vulgare) is widely spread, while the other species are cultivated rarely and grow in wild nature.

Nowadays, barley grain is widely used for food, technical and feed purposes, including brewing industry, for pearl-barley and peeled barley cereal production. Barley is one of the most valued concentrated cattle feed, as it contains full protein, is also rich in starch. About 70 % of barley is used for feed purposes in Russia.